A successful male can potentially sire many offspring. If a male gains a disproportionate share of reproduction, he will take away reproductive opportunities from other males, leading to a high reproductive variance among males.
Why do males have greater reproductive variance?
A male is capable of fathering more offspring if he mates with several females. By and large, a male’s potential reproductive success is limited by the number of females he mates with, whereas a female’s potential reproductive success is limited by how many eggs she can produce.
What factors determine reproductive success in male primates?
Male mating success is therefore primarily limited by the number of fertile females to which they have access. The resulting difference in fitness-limiting factors necessitates a separate consideration of female and male reproductive strategies.
How do male and female constraints on reproduction differ?
Because the reproductive physiology of male and female primates differs (males produce sperm and cannot gestate or lactate; females produce eggs and gestate and lactate), males and females differ with regard to parental investment and sexual selection strategies. Female strategies, on the one hand, focus on obtaining …
Why do females choose mates?
Females tend to be the choosier sex when it comes to selecting a mate, part- ly because males can produce millions of sperm, whereas females’ eggs are few and far between. Thus, females may be more selective because they have more invested in each gamete and in the re- sulting offspring.
Why is Bateman’s principle flawed?
The fatal flaw that our repetition revealed is that the method miscounts the number of mates for each sex—key variables in Bateman’s study—to an unknown degree, because in Bateman’s study the only information about who mated with whom was from the phenotypes of the M♀M♂ offspring.
What is the role of courtship in natural selection?
The more elaborate forms of courtship frequently help strengthen a pair bond that may last through the raising of the young or even longer. Another important function of courtship is its use as an isolating mechanism, a method of keeping different species from interbreeding. (See also display behaviour.)
Why do males compete for females?
The reproductive success of individual males increases with the number of mates. Thus, males often achieve greater reproductive success by competing with other males to access as many females as possible. Females invest more in each individual offspring and thus cannot produce as many offspring as males.
What increases reproductive success?
Females can directly increase their reproductive success by mating with certain, select males and acquiring direct benefits. … Males often evolve traits and displays that advertise their ability to provide direct and indirect benefits, and females evolve preferences for these traits.
Which is the best definition of reproductive success?
Reproductive success is defined as the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they too can pass those genes on. In practice, this is often a tally of the number of offspring produced by an individual.
Is the reproductive success of an organism?
Reproductive success is an individual’s production of offspring per breeding event or lifetime. This is not limited by the number of offspring produced by one individual, but also the reproductive success of these offspring themselves.